Instruction for Authors


The Journal accepts  only  manuscripts through the online submission system, easy to use and easy to track, thus by conducting all procedures electronically your submission will be done rather faster. Once you submit an article, it will be forwarded to one of the editors and afterwards to at least two of the peer-reviewers. At once after submission, the author will be notified of both the submission process by means of email and the follow-up ID code. It is recommended to save the sent ID code for all the future correspondence regarding each article separately.


Type of articles are based on PubMed defenitions. For more info please refer to:

Abstract The article itself is an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.
Announcement Material announced in the publication (may or may not be directly related to the publication)
Article Commentary A work whose subject or focus is another article or articles; this article comments on the other article(s). (This value would be used when the editors of a publication invite an author with an opposing opinion to comment on a controversial article, and then publish the two together. The somewhat similar value “ editorial ” is reserved for commentary written by an editor or other publication staff.)
Book Review Review or analysis of one or more printed or online books (The similar value “product-review” is used for product analyses.)
Books Received Notification that items, e.g., books or other works, have been received by a publication for review or other consideration
Brief Report A short and/or rapid announcement of research results
Calendar A list of events
Case Report Case study, case report, or other description of a case
Collection Wrapper article for a series of sub-articles or responses; this value’s usage is restricted to articles whose intellectual content appears primarily in sub-article or response.
Discussion Invited discussion related to a specific article or issue
Dissertation Thesis or dissertation written as part of the completion of a degree of study
Editorial Opinion piece, policy statement, or general commentary, typically written by staff of the publication (The similar value “article-commentary” is reserved for a commentary on a specific article or articles, which is written by an author with a contrasting position, not an editor or other publication staff.)
In Brief Summary or teaser of items in the current issue
Introduction An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., typically for a special section or issue
Letter Letter to a publication, typically commenting upon a published work
Meeting Report Report of a conference, symposium, or meeting
News News item, normally current but atypically historical
Obituary Announcement of a death, or the appreciation for a colleague who has recently died
Oration Reprint of a speech or oral presentation
Partial Retraction Retraction or disavowal of part(s) of previously published material
Product Review Description, analysis, or review of a product or service, for example, a software package (The similar value “book-review” is used for analyses of books.)
Rapid Communication Fast-breaking research update or other news item
Reply Reply to a letter or commentary, typically by the original author commenting upon the comments
Reprint Reprint of a previously published article
Research Article Article reporting on primary research (The related value “review-article” describes a literature review, research summary, or state-of-the-art article.) Clinical trials is categorised in this group.
Retraction Retraction or disavowal of previously published material
Review Article Review or state-of-the-art summary article (The related value “research-article” describes original research.) Systematic review or Meta analysis is categorised in this type.
Translation Translation of an article originally produced in a different language
Methods Article Study protocol articles can be for proposed or ongoing prospective clinical research, and should provide a detailed account of the hypothesis, rationale and methodology of the study.
Corrections A modification or correction of previously published material; this is sometimes called “errata”. Click here


  • Title:  choose a title that is long enough to cover the main points and by considering the importance of shortness. Only the first letter of the first word of each title and also abbreviations should be in upper case.
  • Support:  sources of any supports should be mentioned.
  • Running title:  a shorter version of the title (40 characters at most) is needed for page footer.

Authors & Affiliations

  • Author(s):  full name of all authors should be mentioned.
    • Method:  [First Name] [Middle Name] [Last Name]
    • Exapmle:  Marek Jan Brensht
  • Affiliation:  Author’s affiliation contains only department and university not author’s degree or position.
    • Method:  [name of department], [name of university], [city], [country]
    • Example:  Molecular Biology Department, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • Corresponding author:  one of the authors should be picked out for possible correspondence before and after publication. Their address, telephone and fax number and email should be written.
    • Method:
      [Name of Recipient] [Full Postal Address] [Tel] Method: +[country code] [city code] [Phone Number] [fax] Method: +[country code] [city code] [Phone Number] [Email]
    • Example:
      Abraham Ranst
      Petersbon Street 2c, 6432 GC, Hoensbroek, The Netherlands
      Tel: +31 22 1234566
      Fax: +31 22 1234566


[required for original articles, review articles, case reports]


An abstract of 250-350 words should be provided to state the reason for the study, the main findings and the conclusions drawn from the observation. Abstract of original articles and brief reports should be structured under the following headings: Background, Objectives (optional), Methods, Results and Conclusions.
The Case Reports should follow these headings: Introduction, Case Report or Case Presentasions and Conclusion.


A list of  3-10 keywords  must be provided for indexing purposes. All keywords should be provided according to MeSH terms at: Note that the preferred expression is indicated by the label “MeSH Heading” and not “Entry Term.” The desired terms may then be copied from the MeSH Browser. Another way of finding appropriate headings is to search PubMed to find articles on similar topics, and review the MeSH headings assigned to those articles. To read more about Keywords refer here.


Choose the proper classification(s) based on your manuscript. It will be used when inviting editors and reviewers. If you cannot find the proper classification in the list, kindly send us an email and inform us.

Implication for health policy makers/practice/research/medical education

This part will be used for better undrestanding the main message of the article in a simple way. Maximum word count should not be more than 50-100. Some examples can be found here.


To send electronically, manuscripts should be in Word Document (Microsoft Word 97, 2003, 2007). Manuscripts, well-written in English, should follow the style of the agreement detailed in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, a copy of which can be found at Please double check the article for spelling, structure and format mistakes.


Article Group Article Type Word Count  (including references and title page) Allowed Reference Count Allowed Illustrations
(Tables & Figures)
Invited Articles Editorial No Limit No Limit No Limit
Super Short Articles Corrections Up to 500 Words 5 1
Partial Retraction
Short Articles Meeting Report Up to 1500 Words 20 3
In Brief
Brief Report
Article Commentary
Rapid Communication
Normal Articles Research Article Up to 3500 Words 55 5
Case Report
Methods Article
Book Review
Long Articles Review Article Up to 5000 words 85 7
Systematic Review
Meta Analysis


To distinguish different parts of the article, it is recommended to use the font Times New Roman size 12 for the body, size 12 bold for subheadings, size 14 for headings and size 14 bold for the title.

Full-Text Manuscript with Figures

Full-Text Manuscript with Figures

Full-text of the manuscript must be a a word file. This file should contain all parts of the manuscript including:  Title page, Abstract, Article Body, Figures, Tables, Acknowledgments, Financial Disclosure, Appendices, and all other supplements  in the format of  Microsoft Word 97 or 2003 . A complete list of parts can be found in Instruction for Authors. References can be in ENDNOTE format.

Full-Text Manuscript Without Figures

This full-text of the manuscript is a word file without any figure or additional parts. This file should contain:  Title page, Abstract, Article Body, Tables,  WITHOUT any figure in the format of  Microsoft Word 97 or 2003 .

References should be in simple text (not in ENDNOTE format). Beides, we cannot accept tranck changed word files via this session.

*** Note:  This file will be converted to the PDF.

Article Body

[especially required for original articles]

The rest of the article differs according to the article type you are submitting but generally includes the following headings: Background, Objectives (optional), Methods, Results, Discussion and References.


This should summarize the purpose and the rationale for the study. It should neither review the subject extensively nor should it have data or conclusions of the study


Author(s) should declare objectives/aims of the study. This section is optional both in Abstracts and Article body.


This should include exact method or observation or experiment. If an apparatus is used, its manufacturer’s name and address should be given in parenthesis. If the method is established, give reference but if the method is new, give enough information so that another author is able to perform it. If a drug is used, its generic name, dose and route of administration must be given. Statistical method must be mentioned and specify any general computer program used. The Info system used should be clearly mentioned.


It must be presented in the form of text, tables and illustrations. The contents of the tables should not be all repeated in the text. Instead, a reference to the table number may be given. Long articles may need sub-headings within some sections (especially the Results and Discussion parts) to clarify their contents.


This should emphasize the present findings and the variations or similarities with other work done in the field by other workers. The detailed data should not be repeated in the discussion again. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. It must be mentioned whether the hypothesis mentioned in the article is true, false or no conclusions can be derived.


All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be covered in the acknowledgment section. It should include persons who provided technical help, writing assistance and departmental head that only provided general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.


All tables must be included at the end of the manuscript.

  • Tables in the word file should be separated by page break (each table in a separate page).
  • Each Table should have borders with normal style without any colored row or column.
  • The style of table should be simple.
  • Each cell contains only one paragraph or one line.


(Figures must be submitted as separate files)

  • Authors should declare in the cover letter that all figures of their manuscripts are original, otherwise the original source of figures should be mentioned and reprint form must be uploaded in the attachments.
  • Scanned graph from other resources will not be accepted to publish.
  • All Figures should be in the form of encapsulated postscript (.eps), power point (.ppt), portable document format (.pdf), Photoshop (.psd), TIF (.tiff), PNG (png) or JPG (.jpg).
  • The raw data of the charts should be uploaded in Microsoft excel format (MS Office 1997-2003)
  • Please scan all images in at least 300dpi. Most consumer scanners scan in sRGB by default. However, if you are using a high-end scanner then Adobe RGB is recommended for optimum colour depth.Colorspace should be in RGB.
  • Image quality specification for Line art (an image composed of lines and text which does not contain tonal or shaded areas) has resolution of 900 dpi, hafltone (a continuous tone photograph which contains no text) with 300 dpi and combination of both should have 500 dpi of resolution.
  •  We will NOT accept any images with resolution below 300 dpi.

More information about file specifications can be seen at:


Internationally accepted units (International System of Units), symbols, and abbreviations must be used. Abbreviations should be used sparingly and must be introduced in parentheses upon first mention. Abbreviations that have meaning only within the context of the specific manuscript should be avoided.


Generic drug names must be used in the title and throughout the manuscript text. The proprietary name should be included in parentheses, along with the name of manufacturer, and city upon first mention in the text.


Should apply for all manuscript submissions, including letters to the editor, opinion pieces, informal essays, and book reviews.
Authors are expected to provide detailed information about any relevant financial interests or financial conflicts within the past 5 years and for the foreseeable future.
Many universities and other institutions and organizations have established policies and thresholds for reporting financial interests and other conflicts of interest
Authors who have no relevant financial interests are asked to provide a statement indicating that they have no financial interests related to the material in the manuscript.
Dr de Lemos reported receiving research grants and honoraria and consulting fees for speaking from Biosite and Roche. Dr Blazing reported receiving honoraria from Merck and Pfizer.

Statement of Human and Animal Right

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Statement of Informed Consent

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the published article.


Detailed information regarding all financial and material support for the research and work
Not limited to grant support, funding sources, and provision of equipment and supplies.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by grant CA34988 from the National Institutes of Health and by a teaching and research scholarship from the American College of Physicians (Dr Fischl).


We ask authors to describe what each author contributed, and these contributions to the work may be published at the editor’s discretion.

Example:  Author Contributions: Study concept and design: Fortes, Melchi, and Abeni. Analysis and interpretation of data: Fortes, Mastroeni, and Leffondre. Drafting of the manuscript: Fortes. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mastroeni, Leffondre, Sampogna, Melchi, Mazzotti, Pasquini, and Abeni. Statistical analysis: Fortes and Mastoeni.

Yoon Kong Loke developed the original idea and the protocol, abstracted and analyzed data, wrote the manuscript, and is guarantor. Deirdre Price and Sheena Derry contributed to the development of the protocol, abstracted data, and prepared the manuscript.

How to write?

Please clarify and write who was responsible for:
1- Study concept and design:
2- Acquisition of data:
3- Analysis and interpretation of data:
4- Drafting of the manuscript:
5- Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content:
6- Statistical analysis:
7- Administrative, technical, and material support:
8- Study supervision:


The specific role of the funding organization or sponsor in:

  • Design and conduct of the study Collection,
  • Management,
  • Analysis of the data
  • Preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript

Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations are public institutions and had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, and analysis of the data; or preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript. The Utah and Missouri health departments provided practical support for the focus group and survey processes, including letters of endorsement, hospital contact information, and assistance with logistic arrangements for focus group sessions.


This Journal accepts references according to a style based on Vancouver style (with some minor changes). Vancouver, a numbered style, follows rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Writing references as an ENDNOTE or REFMAN file will be considered as an advantage when submitting a manuscript.
If you are using Endnote software to download the latest style based on Vancouver please click HERE and unzip the file.


In the Vancouver system, the only indication required in the text of a paper is a number, allocated in ascending sequence, and presented in the text either in brackets, some or in superscript. For example:
“Recent randomized controlled trials in primary care showed benefits for patients with depression from increased telephone support, better cooperation between primary care and mental health professionals, and more systematic follow up.7”
If the same source is cited again later in the text, the same number is used once more. If multiple references are cited, use a hyphen to join an inclusive range of numbers thus: 2-5. Use commas without spaces to separate non-inclusive numbers in a multiple citation thus: 2-5,7,10.


A bibliography is a list of references cited given at the end of an essay, dissertation etc. Each individual reference is made by putting together all the details needed to find a piece of information, in a specified order. Different details are needed for different formats of information. It is important to use the same style, punctuation and order of details throughout your piece of work. In this topic you will look at how individual references are constructed. In particular you will learn how to reference.


Below are the details needed to construct a book reference. All the details should be put in the exact order, with identical punctuation. Each element of the reference is separated from the next by a full stop.

  1. Each author’s surname followed by the initials (in the same order as they appear on the title page), a comma should separate each author’s name
  2. Title of the book
  3. Edition of the book if there has been more than one. Abbreviate edition to ed.
  4. Place of publication or town of origin, followed by a colon
  5. Publisher’s name, followed by a semi-colon
  6. Year of publication

If only a part is cited, add the page numbers, and volume number in the case of multi-volume works, at the end of the reference. Below is a sample book reference.
Ford MJ, Munro JF. Introduction to Clinical Examination. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.
If you need to reference a book written by more than six authors, list the first six authors’ names followed by “et al” thus:
Cohen J, Brown A, Smith B, Jones G, Murphy M, McKay P et al.

  • Personal author(s)
    Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
  • Editor(s), compiler(s) as author
    Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
  • Author(s) and editor(s)
    Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
  • Organization(s) as author
    –Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001. 454 p.
    –American Occupational Therapy Association, Ad Hoc Committee on Occupational Therapy Manpower. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan for progress. Rockville (MD): The Association; 1985 Apr. 84 p.
    National Lawyer’s Guild AIDs Network (US); National Gay Rights Advocates (US). AIDS practice manual: a legal and educational guide. 2nd ed. San Francisco: The Network; 1988.
  • A chapter in a book
    Sometimes you may wish to refer to a particular chapter in an edited book. Any quotation from the book should be listed under the author of the chapter from which it is quoted.
    Below is a sample reference for a chapter from an edited book.
    Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome Alterations in Human Solid Tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
  • Conference proceedings
    Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
  • Conference paper
    Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza’s computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
  • Scientific or technical report
    Issued by funding/sponsoring agency:
    Yen GG (Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Health monitoring on vibration signatures. Final report. Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002 Feb. Report No.: AFRLSRBLTR020123. Contract No.: F496209810049.
  • Issued by performing agency
    Russell ML, Goth-Goldstein R, Apte MG, Fisk WJ. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus. Berkeley (CA): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division; 2002 Jan. Report No.: LBNL49574. Contract No.: DEAC0376SF00098. Sponsored by the Department of Energy.
  • Dissertation
    Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.
  • Patent
    Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.


If you can’t find the place of publication, write (s.l.) to indicate that the place is unknown (sine loco).

  1. Author’s surname, followed by initials or first name; for articles by up to and including six authors, list all authors separated by commas
  2. Title of the article, followed by a full stop
  3. Title of the journal abbreviated (using this link: No punctuation should be used.
  4. Date of publication: year followed by month (abbreviated to three letters) and day followed by a semi-colon.
  5. Volume and issue number, the latter in brackets, followed by a colon
  6. Page numbers, followed by a full stop
  • Standard journal article
    List the first six authors followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists all authors.)
    –Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, Dallal GE, Keusch GT, Singh MF, et al.Vitamin E and Respiratory Tract Iinfections in Elderly Nursing Home Residents: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2004 Aug 18;292(7):828-36.
    –Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
    –As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many medical journals do) the month and issue number may be omitted.
    –Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
  • More than six authors
    Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.
  • Optional addition of a database’s unique identifier for the citation
    Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.
    Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed PMID: 19204236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2653214.
  • Optional addition of a clinical trial registration number
    Trachtenberg F, Maserejian NN, Soncini JA, Hayes C, Tavares M. Does fluoride in compomers prevent future caries in children? J Dent Res. 2009 Mar;88(3):276-9. PubMed PMID: 19329464. registration number: NCT00065988.
  • Organization as author
    Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
  • Both personal authors and organization as author (List all as they appear in the byline.)
    — Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.
    — Margulies EH, Blanchette M; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Haussler D, Green ED. Identification and characterization of multi-species conserved sequences. Genome Res. 2003 Dec;13(12):2507-18.
  • No author given
    21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.
  • Article not in English
    Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.
  • Optional translation of article title
    Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.
  • Volume with supplement
    Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
  • Issue with supplement
    Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.
  • Volume with part
    Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.
  • Issue with part
    Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.
  • Issue with no volume
    Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.
  • No volume or issue
    Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction. 2002 Jun:1-6.
  • Pagination in roman numerals
    Chadwick R, Schuklenk U. The politics of ethical consensus finding. Bioethics. 2002;16(2):iii-v.
  • Type of article indicated as needed
    — Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy [letter]. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(1):242.
    — Lofwall MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients [abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S105.
  • Article containing retraction
    Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169. Retraction of: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(12):909-11.
  • Article containing a partial retraction
    Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction after removal of eroded slings. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749. Partial retraction of: Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4.
  • Article retracted
    Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(12):909-11. Retraction in: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169.
  • Article partially retracted
    Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction following removal of eroded synthetic mid urethral slings. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4. Partial retraction in: Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749.
  • Article republished with corrections
    Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;188(1-2):22-5. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;183(1-2):123-6.
  • Article with published erratum
    Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther. 2000;22(10):1151-68; discussion 1149-50. Erratum in: Clin Ther. 2001;23(2):309.
  • Article published electronically ahead of the print version
    Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.


If you can’t find out who wrote the book or article you want to reference, begin the entry with the title. Do not use either “Anonymous” or “anon”.
Below is a sample anonymous journal article reference.
Health and Dictatorship: Effects of Repression in Turkmenistan. Lancet. 2003 Jan 4;361(9351):69-70.


You may wish to have a reference to a paper or collection of papers presented at a conference or seminar. These are generally known as conference papers or proceedings.
These are the details you will need to construct a reference for a conference paper, the punctuation marks at the end of each element being those you should use to put the reference together.

  1. Author’s or authors’ surname(s) followed by first name or initials.
  2. Title of the paper.
  3. In: (to indicate that the next element is the collection of papers from the conference)
  4. Editor’s or editors’ surname (s) followed by initials or first name if the paper appears in an edited book.
  5. Title of the conference;
  6. Date of conference;
  7. Place of publication:
  8. Publisher’s name;
  9. Year of publication.
  10. Page numbers.

For example
Anderson JC. Current Status of Chorion Villus Biopsy. In: Tudenhope D, Chenoweth J, editors. Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the Australian Perinatal Society; 1986 Sept. 3-6; Brisbane, Queensland: Australian Perinatal Society; 1987. p. 190-6.


Reports which are not the responsibility of one individual should be listed under the name of the body responsible for their publication.
Note: corporate publications should not be listed under the name of the chairman of a committee, in spite of the fact that they are commonly referred to in this way.
Below is a sample corporate publication reference.
The Royal Marsden Hospital Bone-Marrow Transplantation Team. Failure of Syngeneic Bone-Marrow Graft Without Preconditioning in Post-Hepatitis Marrow Aplasia. Lancet 1977; 2:242-4.


References for government publications are similar to corporate publications. Below is a sample reference for a UK government publication.
NHS Executive. Clinical Governance: Quality in the New NHS. London: Department of Health; 1999.


  • Newspaper article
    Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
  • Audiovisual material
    Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002.
  • Legal Material
    a) Public law
    Veterans Hearing Loss Compensation Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-9, 115 Stat. 11 (May 24, 2001).
    b) Unenacted bill
    Healthy Children Learn Act, S. 1012, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (2001).
    c) Code of Federal Regulations:
    Cardiopulmonary Bypass Intracardiac Suction Control, 21 C.F.R. Sect. 870.4430 (2002).
    d) Hearing
    Arsenic in Drinking Water: An Update on the Science, Benefits and Cost: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Environment, Technology and Standards of the House Comm. on Science, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (Oct. 4, 2001).
  • Map
    Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.
  • Dictionary and similar references
    Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.


  • In press or Forthcoming
    (Note: NLM prefers “Forthcoming” rather than “In press” because not all items will be printed.)
    Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Forthcoming 2002.


For all websites you need to note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL). You can cite online articles in the same way you would print.

  • WWW document
    These are the details you need for referencing a web document:
    Author/editor’s surname author/editor’s first name or initial. editor [if appropriate]. Title of page. Title of site. Last update or copyright date. URL (Access date).
    Below is a sample reference for a web document.
    Royal College of General Practitioners. The Primary Health Care Team. RCGP website 2003 [cited 2004 Sep 22]; Available from: URL:
  • Article in an online format
    These are the details you need:
    Author’s surname, initials. (Year) Document title. Journal title, Volume (part).
    Below is a sample reference for an online article.
    Drasin, Todd, Dutson, Erik and Gracia, Carlos. Use of a Robotic System as Surgical First Assistant in Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 199(3).


  • CD-ROM
    Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson’s electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
  • Journal article on the Internet
    Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from:
    a) Optional presentation (omits bracketed phrase that qualifies the journal title abbreviation)
    Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from:
    b) Article with document number in place of traditional pagination
    Williams JS, Brown SM, Conlin PR. Videos in clinical medicine. Blood-pressure measurement. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29;360(5):e6. PubMed PMID: 19179309.
    c) Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
    Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2615549.
    d) Article with unique publisher item identifier (pii) in place of traditional pagination or DOI
    Tegnell A, Dillner J, Andrae B. Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Sweden. Euro Surveill. 2009 Feb 12;14(6). pii: 19119. PubMed PMID: 19215721.
  • Monograph on the Internet
    Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:
  • Homepage/Web site [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:
  • Part of a homepage/Web site
    American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from:
  • Database on the Internet
    Open database
    Who’s Certified [Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. c2000 – [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from:
    b) Closed database
    Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); c1999 [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2002 Aug 12]. Available from:
  • Part of a database on the Internet
    MeSH Browser [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2002 – . Meta-analysis [cited 2008 Jul 24]; [about 2 p.]. Available from: MeSH Unique ID: D017418.
  • Blogs
    –Holt M. The Health Care Blog [Internet]. San Francisco: Matthew Holt. 2003 Oct – [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from: [Internet]. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 – [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from:
    — Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG: WSJ’s blog on health and the business of health [Internet]. Hensley S, editor. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2007 – [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from:
    –  Contribution to a blog
    –Mantone J. Head trauma haunts many, researchers say. 2008 Jan 29 [cited 2009 Feb 13]. In: Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG [Internet]. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2008 – . [about 1 screen]. Available from:
    –Campbell A. Diabetes and alcohol: do the two mix? (Part 2). 2008 Jan 28 [cited 2009 Feb 13]. In: Diabetes Self-Management Blog [Internet]. New York: Diabetes Self-Management. [2006 Aug 14] – . 2 p. Available from:
    -Reider J. Docnotes: Health, Technology, Family Medicine and other observations [Internet]. [place unknown]: Jacob Reider. 1999 – . CRP again …; 2004 Apr 2 [cited 2009 Feb 13]; [about 1 screen]. Available from:


International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication
Updated November 2003
National Library of Medicine Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Sample References
Updated July 2003
The University of Western Australia
Updated April 2011
The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers
[Internet]. 2nd edition


a) How can we cite journals in the reference part?
Some journals have more than two parts and should be abbreviated when write in the references. You can find the journals abbreviation via:

b) How can we cite Iranian Journals in the reference part?

  • Some of the Iranian journal called according to their Universities, like Scientific research Journal of Babol Medical Science. Authors should write these journals like below:
    [J: Abbreviation of Journal] [full name of the city] [Univ: Abbreviation of University] [Med: Abbreviation of Medical] [Sci: Abbreviation of Sciences]
    Example:   J Babol Univ Med Sci
  • Some other journals have unique names and should write complete names in the reference part like:
    Example:  Yakhteh


This letter should be uploaded through online system as a word file. By an official letter corresponding author should introduce the manuscript briefly and state that:

  1. The manuscript is original work of author. All data, tables, figures, etc. used in the manuscript are prepared originaly by authors, otherwise the sources are cited and a reprint permission should be attached.
  2. The manuscript has not been and will not be published elsewhere or submitted elsewhere for publication.

  3. Conflict of interest

    : To prevent the information on potential

    conflict of interest

    for authors from being overlooked or misplaced, mention this information in the cover letter.

  4. Ethics of experimentation


    Informed consent

    : The cover letter must include a statement declaring that the study complies with current

    ethical considerations

    . Authors reporting experimental studies on human subjects must include a statement of assurance in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript reading that: (1)

    informed consent

    was obtained from each patient included in the study and (2) the study protocol conforms to the

    ethical guidelines

    of the

    1975 Declaration of Helsinki

    as reflected in a priori approval by the institution\’s human research committee. In studies involving animal experimentation, provide assurance that all animals received humane care according to the criteria outlined in the \”

    Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

    \” prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 86-23 revised 1985).

  5. Informed Consent

    : to see templates

    click here.
  6. Getting access to the template of cover letter, kindly click



All authors should study and accept the copyright statment that is available




All submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and editorial approval. Articles will be sent to at least three reviewers. Sometimes, the reviewers are masked as to the identity of the authors and their affiliation. Authors are usually notified within 1-2 months about the acceptability of their manuscript. Reviewers are selected based on their expertise within the topic area of the submission, and their purpose is to assist the authors and the journal by providing a critical review of the manuscript. On receiving reviewers comments, authors are requested to send the revised article, and a copy of their reply to the reviewers, including the comment and explaining the replies to questions and changes made to the revised version. Communication regarding a specific manuscript will take place between the journal and the designated corresponding author only.

Request Editor

You can suggest the favorite editor to the Editor-in-Chief. Your suggestion will be considered in the review process.

Other Files

Other files can be additional files which are requested from the journal side. You can easily upload them in the mentioned box.



• It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production.

• Word files of edited articles may be sent for checking via email prior to typesetting. It is essential that these files are checked carefully. Full instructions on how to correct and return the file to the Publisher will be attached to the email.

• Electronic

PDF proofs:

Notification of the URL from where to download a PDF typeset page proof and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures.

Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage.

The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the manuscript ID indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off on by the Editor or held over to the next issue. Acrobat Reader will be required to read the PDF. This software can be downloaded free of charge from the following website: Acrobat Reader will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added.


To improve success rate of publishing articles, authors can have a look at these checklists which will be considered as a checklist by Reviewers in the review process.



GENERAL Checklist for all types of studies Download


STROBE Checklist of items that should be included in reports of cross-sectional studies

Read More…



STROBE Checklist of items that should be included in reports of case-control studies

Read More…



STROBE Checklist of items that should be included in reports of cohort studies

Read More…



STROBE Checklist of items that should be included in reports of observational studies

Read More…



CONSORT Checklist of information to include when reporting a randomised trial

Read More…



PRISMA Transparent reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Read More…



STARD Checklist for reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy

Read More…



TREND Non-randomised evaluations of behavioural and public health interventions

Read More…



REMARK Checklist for Tumour marker prognostic studies

Read More…



COREQ Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research: a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups

Read More…





Citing or linking with a DOI link

A digital object identifier (DOI) can be used to cite and link to electronic documents. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it to link permanently to electronic documents.

To find a document using a DOI

  1. Copy the DOI of the document you want to open.
  2. Open the following DOI site in your browser:
  3. Enter the entire DOI in the text box provided, and then click



To cite or create a link to a document using a DOI

The correct format for citing or creating a link to a document using its DOI is as follows:

The DOI scheme is administered by the

International DOI Foundation

. Many of the world’s leading publishers have come together to build a DOI-based document linking scheme known as




Withdrawal Defenition:

is an action that takes the manuscript out of the review process and places it back into the author’s dashboard.

Our View Regarding Withdrawal

In General, we do not suggest article withdrawal, since it wastes valuable manuscript processing time, money and works invested by the publisher.

Withdrawal Steps

  • Pre-Review: is a period that an author(s) submit(s) her/his article until to be sent for review.
  • Peer-Review: is a period that manuscript submitted completely into the website and included in the review process.
  • Review – Final Decision: is a period from the acceptance of an article until to be sent for publication if the article meets the journal standards.
  • Post-Publication: when a paper is published (online and/or hard copy).


  • Pre-Review: The author(s) can withdraw their papers at this step without paying any charges and/or posing compelling reasons.
  • Peer-Review: The authors must have compelling reasons and pay 1000 USD as the withdrawal penalty.
  • Review – Final Decision: The authors must have compelling reasons and pay 1000 USD as the withdrawal penalty.
  • Post-Publication: Withdrawing at this step is not possible at all.

What Are Compelling Reasons?

  • Plagiarism
  • bogus claims of authorship
  • multiple submission
  • fraudulent use of data or the like
  • Infringements of professional ethical codes



A retraction is a public statement made about an earlier statement that is going to be removed from the journal. The retraction may be initiated by the editors of the journal, or by the author(s) of the paper. However, since responsibility for the journal’s content rests with the editor, s/he should always have the final decision about retracting material. Journal editors may retract publications even if all or some of the authors refuse to retract the publication themselves.

When should a publication be retracted?

Only published items can be retracted. Publications should be retracted as soon as possible after the journal editor is convinced that the publication is seriously flawed and misleading (or is redundant or plagiarized).

What Are Compelling Reasons?

  • Plagiarism
  • Bogus claims of authorship
  • Multiple submission
  • Fraudulent use of data
  • Infringements of professional ethical codes
  • Redundant publication
  • Failure to disclose a major competing interest

Should retraction be applied in cases of disputed authorship?

Authors sometimes request that articles are retracted when authorship is disputed after publication. If there is no reason to doubt the validity of the findings or the reliability of the data it is not appropriate to retract a publication solely on the grounds of an authorship dispute. In such cases, the journal editor should inform those involved in the dispute that s/he cannot adjudicate in such cases but will be willing to publish a correction to the author/contributor list if the authors/contributors (or their institutions) provide appropriate proof that such a change is justified.

Article Retraction Process

  • A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published in the paginated part of a subsequent issue of the journal and listed in the contents list.
  • In the electronic version, a link is made to the original article.
  • The original article is retained unchanged save for a watermark on the .pdf indicating on each page that it is “retracted.”
  • The HTML version of the document is removed.

Wager E, Barbour V, Yentis S, Kleinert S. Retraction Guidelines. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Sep 2009. Available from:


We accept all terms and conditions of COPE

about plagiarism and in case, any attempt of plagiarism is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, we act based on flowcharts and workflows determined in

All submissions will be checked with iTheticate software in 2 stages: New Submission and After Acceptance from the editorial boards.


Republishing is a case of Plagiarism in our Journals

Our journals explicitly instruct authors not to submit papers or variations of papers on studies that have already been published elsewhere even in other languages than English. Especially those articles which are published in local journals (with local languages) are not permitted to be submitted in our journals.

Open Access Statement

Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


All articles are published by this journal, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License


Advertising Policy

This journal accepts related advertisements to be introduced in journal website and/or prints.

In order to find out more you can contact us via the e-mail address presented in homepage or the support button.